Tuesday, February 2, 2016

Some Security Terms and Definitions (Updated)

Certain concepts recur throughout different fields of security:

February 2nd, 2016:

Baseline Security - The minimum security controls required for safeguarding an IT system based on its identified needs for confidentiality, integrity, and availability protection.

Anomaly-Based Detection – The process of comparing definitions of what activity is considered normal against observed events to identify significant deviations.

Asymmetric Keys – Two related keys, a public key and a private key that are used to perform complementary operations, such as encryption and decryption or signature generation and signature verification

Audit Log – A chronological record of system activities. Includes records of system accesses and operations performed in a given period

Authentication – Verifying the identity of a user, process, or device, often as a prerequisite to allowing access to resources in an information system

Backdoor – An undocumented way of gaining access to a computer system. A backdoor is a potential security risk.

January 31, 2016:

Zombie – A program that is installed on a system to cause it to attack other systems

Malware – A program that is inserted into a system, usually covertly, with the intent of compromising the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of the victim’s data, applications, or operating system or of otherwise annoying or disrupting the victim

Malicious Code – Software or firmware intended to perform an unauthorized process that will have adverse impact on the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of an information system. A virus, worm, Trojan horse, or other code-based entity that infects a host. Spyware and some forms of adware are also examples of malicious code

Man-in-the-middle Attack – (MitM) An attack on the authentication protocol run in which the Attacker positions himself in between the Claimant and Verifier so that he can intercept and alter data traveling between them.

Macro Virus – A virus that attaches itself to documents and uses the macro programming capabilities of the document’s application to execute and propagate

Logic Bomb – A piece of code intentionally inserted into a software system that will set off a malicious function when specified conditions are met.

Source: http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/ir/2013/NIST.IR.7298r2.pdf

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